The Baucom Hardaway Site (Peck and Painter)

trampled into the dust of the campsite (Painter, 1882 ). Basic unaltered specimens such as "A" above are seldom found on habitation sites, and when found are usually "strays" lost in hunting accidents and found in unexpected places. The authors have examined specimens of "A" that were as much as three inches in length (75 mm) and none of these were reported as found on Hardaway campsites.

This cultural trait of using lithic projectile points for a multitude of purposes seems to be unique to the Hardaway Tradition. It had its beginnings far back in the Early Man Period and lasted through the Paleo-Indian Period, the Early Archaic and on into the Middle Archaic before finally being phased out in the early portion of the Late Archaic Period. The lithic traits that accompany the multi-use of projectile points are: basal grinding, notch grinding, serrated blade edges, alternate beveling of blade edges, asymmetrical resharpening of blade edges, and of course, the altering of blades to form knives, scrapers, drill-like and saw-like tools etc. Any projectile point exhibiting three or more of these listed traits can be safely considered as being in the Hardaway Tradition or descended directly from it (Painter, 1983). This includes a great number of named projectile points found east of the Great Plains.

The Clovis Tradition, on the other hand, shares only two traits with the Hardaway Tradition and they were perhaps borrowed from it. These two traits are: basal grinding and lateral edge grinding and there the similarity ceases. The Clovis Tradition peoples did sometimes resharpen their projectile points but only if they were broken in manufacture or in hunting accidents. They did not resharpen their points as tools or alter them in order to utilize them for other purposes. The knives, saws, drills, scrapers etc. of the Clovis Tradition were made from blades (core-blades) especially struck for use as tools or to be altered into special tools. This core-blade industry is a trait unique to the Clovis Tradition, and a hallmark of that tradition.

In short, the Clovis people were makers of core-blades, the Hardaway peoples lacked that skill but it was not a handicap to them. The tools and weapons of the two cultures reflect two separate and distinct lithic traditions. The Clovis and Hardaway Side-Notched projectile points represent classic periods in the evolution of the two lithic traditions and both traditions had their origins farther back in the mists of time. We have a theory that the Hardaway Tradition is the older of the two, at least in the southeastern states, but this remains to be proven. We are working on it, however, and the date of 11,100 years B.P. for the Hardaway Side-Notched point, is another link in the chain.

For many years collectors and archaeologists alike, have noted that in areas of Virginia and the Carolinas where Clovis fluted points are relatively abundant, Hardaway Side-Notched points are seldom found. The opposite seems to rule that where Hardaway Side-Notched points are relatively plentiful, Clovis fluted points are scarce. This could possibly be an example of the reporting bias of collectors, but if so, it is not fully understood for in all three states the two point types are equally valued though not considered as contemporaries by most collectors. If this distribution of point types is indeed true, then it would indicate that the Hardaway Side-Notched and the Clovis fluted points were contemporaries and that the two cultures were competitors for hunting territories. It could possibly- indicate

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